This article describes best practices for creating a website directory and setting up right folder permissions.
Recommended directory to store website contents
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard defines standardized recommendations on where to put what in Unix-like systems.
/srv directory should contain data that is served by the system. This is usually the place you want to host your web sites files.
One method for structuring data under
/srv is by protocol, eg.
www (https and http), and
So, simply create a
/srv/www directory and use this. You can create subfolders for every virtual host you might want to serve with your machine.
Create the website directory if it does not exist
The right folder permissions for a website on a Linux server are discussed on stackoverflow.
Permissions as bits are 1 for x (execution), 2 for w (write) and 4 for r (read), which can be combined into an octal digit. For example, r-x is 4 + 1 = 5. There are 3 sets of permissions (user, group, others). So the 664 is rw-rw-r–.
For my setup, I used the following permissions criteria:
- Permission for directories: 755. This means that:
- The user owner of the directory can read, write and execute.
- The assigned group can read and execute, but not write.
- Everyone else can read and execute, but not write.
- Permissions for files: 644. This means that:
- The user owner of the file can read and write only.
- The assigned group can read only.
- Everyone else can read only.
# 0. settings web_dir=/srv/www myusername=kassambara # 1. Create the website directory sudo mkdir -p $web_dir # 2. set your user as the owner sudo chown -R $myusername $web_dir # 3. set the web server as the group owner sudo chgrp -R www-data $web_dir # 4. 755 permissions for everything sudo chmod -R 755 $web_dir # 5. New files and folders inherit # group ownership from the parent folder chmod g+s $web_dir
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