This article describes how to create a **pie chart** and **donut chart** using the **ggplot2** R package. Pie chart is just a stacked bar chart in polar coordinates.

The function `coord_polar()`

is used to produce pie chart from a bar plot.

Contents:

#### Related Book

GGPlot2 Essentials for Great Data Visualization in R## Prerequisites

### Load required packages

```
library("ggplot2") # Data visualization
library("dplyr") # Data manipulation
```

### Data preparation

- Create titanic passengers count dataset:

```
count.data <- data.frame(
class = c("1st", "2nd", "3rd", "Crew"),
n = c(325, 285, 706, 885),
prop = c(14.8, 12.9, 32.1, 40.2)
)
count.data
```

```
## class n prop
## 1 1st 325 14.8
## 2 2nd 285 12.9
## 3 3rd 706 32.1
## 4 Crew 885 40.2
```

- Compute the position of the text labels as the cumulative sum of the proportion:

- Arrange the grouping variable (
`class`

) in descending order. This is important to compute the y coordinates of labels. - To put the labels in the center of pies, we’ll use
`cumsum(prop) - 0.5*prop`

as label position.

```
# Add label position
count.data <- count.data %>%
arrange(desc(class)) %>%
mutate(lab.ypos = cumsum(prop) - 0.5*prop)
count.data
```

```
## class n prop lab.ypos
## 1 Crew 885 40.2 20.1
## 2 3rd 706 32.1 56.3
## 3 2nd 285 12.9 78.8
## 4 1st 325 14.8 92.6
```

## Pie chart

- Create the pie charts using ggplot2 verbs. Key function:
`geom_bar()`

+`coord_polar()`

. - Add text labels:
`geom_text()`

- Change fill color manually:
`scale_color_manual()`

- Apply
`theme_void()`

to remove axes, background, etc

```
mycols <- c("#0073C2FF", "#EFC000FF", "#868686FF", "#CD534CFF")
ggplot(count.data, aes(x = "", y = prop, fill = class)) +
geom_bar(width = 1, stat = "identity", color = "white") +
coord_polar("y", start = 0)+
geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos, label = prop), color = "white")+
scale_fill_manual(values = mycols) +
theme_void()
```

## Donut chart

Donut chart chart is just a simple pie chart with a hole inside.

The only difference between the pie chart code is that we set: `x = 2`

and `xlim = c(0.5, 2.5)`

to create the hole inside the pie chart. Additionally, the argument `width`

in the function `geom_bar()`

is no longer needed.

```
ggplot(count.data, aes(x = 2, y = prop, fill = class)) +
geom_bar(stat = "identity", color = "white") +
coord_polar(theta = "y", start = 0)+
geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos, label = prop), color = "white")+
scale_fill_manual(values = mycols) +
theme_void()+
xlim(0.5, 2.5)
```

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Version: Français

Thanks! Very helpful. Your plots render beautifully, while mine are jagged (my non-polar plots are fine). Any idea why and how to fix?