This article describes how to create a pie chart and donut chart using the ggplot2 R package. Pie chart is just a stacked bar chart in polar coordinates.
coord_polar() is used to produce pie chart from a bar plot.
Related BookGGPlot2 Essentials for Great Data Visualization in R
Load required packages
library("ggplot2") # Data visualization library("dplyr") # Data manipulation
- Create titanic passengers count dataset:
count.data <- data.frame( class = c("1st", "2nd", "3rd", "Crew"), n = c(325, 285, 706, 885), prop = c(14.8, 12.9, 32.1, 40.2) ) count.data
## class n prop ## 1 1st 325 14.8 ## 2 2nd 285 12.9 ## 3 3rd 706 32.1 ## 4 Crew 885 40.2
- Compute the position of the text labels as the cumulative sum of the proportion:
- Arrange the grouping variable (
class) in descending order. This is important to compute the y coordinates of labels.
- To put the labels in the center of pies, we’ll use
cumsum(prop) - 0.5*propas label position.
# Add label position count.data <- count.data %>% arrange(desc(class)) %>% mutate(lab.ypos = cumsum(prop) - 0.5*prop) count.data
## class n prop lab.ypos ## 1 Crew 885 40.2 20.1 ## 2 3rd 706 32.1 56.3 ## 3 2nd 285 12.9 78.8 ## 4 1st 325 14.8 92.6
- Create the pie charts using ggplot2 verbs. Key function:
- Add text labels:
- Change fill color manually:
theme_void()to remove axes, background, etc
mycols <- c("#0073C2FF", "#EFC000FF", "#868686FF", "#CD534CFF") ggplot(count.data, aes(x = "", y = prop, fill = class)) + geom_bar(width = 1, stat = "identity", color = "white") + coord_polar("y", start = 0)+ geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos, label = prop), color = "white")+ scale_fill_manual(values = mycols) + theme_void()
Donut chart chart is just a simple pie chart with a hole inside.
The only difference between the pie chart code is that we set:
x = 2 and
xlim = c(0.5, 2.5) to create the hole inside the pie chart. Additionally, the argument
width in the function
geom_bar() is no longer needed.
ggplot(count.data, aes(x = 2, y = prop, fill = class)) + geom_bar(stat = "identity", color = "white") + coord_polar(theta = "y", start = 0)+ geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos, label = prop), color = "white")+ scale_fill_manual(values = mycols) + theme_void()+ xlim(0.5, 2.5)
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Thanks! Very helpful. Your plots render beautifully, while mine are jagged (my non-polar plots are fine). Any idea why and how to fix?