A Violin Plot is used to visualize the distribution of the data and its probability density.
This chart is a combination of a Box plot and a Density Plot that is rotated and placed on each side, to display the distribution shape of the data.
Typically, violin plots will include a marker for the median of the data and a box indicating the interquartile range, as in standard boxplots.
A Violin Plot shows more information than a Box Plot. For example, in a violin plot, you can see whether the distribution of the data is bimodal or multimodal.
This article describes how to create and customize violin plots using the ggplot2 R package.
Key R functions
geom_violin(): Creates violin plots. Key arguments:
linetype: Border line color, size and type
fill: Areas fill color
trim: logical value. If TRUE (default), trim the tails of the violins to the range of the data. If FALSE, don’t trim the tails.
stat_summary(): Adds summary statistics (mean, median, …) on the violin plots.
- Demo dataset:
- Continuous variable:
len(tooth length). Used on y-axis
- Grouping variable:
dose(dose levels of vitamin C: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/day). Used on x-axis.
- Continuous variable:
First, convert the variable
dose from a numeric to a discrete factor variable:
data("ToothGrowth") ToothGrowth$dose <- as.factor(ToothGrowth$dose) head(ToothGrowth, 4)
## len supp dose ## 1 4.2 VC 0.5 ## 2 11.5 VC 0.5 ## 3 7.3 VC 0.5 ## 4 5.8 VC 0.5
Loading required R package
Load the ggplot2 package and set the default theme to
theme_classic() with the legend at the top of the plot:
library(ggplot2) theme_set( theme_classic() + theme(legend.position = "top") )
Basic violin plots
We start by initiating a plot named
e, then we’ll add layers. The following R code creates Violin Plots combined with summary statistics (mean +/- SD) and Box Plots.
Create basic violin plots with summary statistics:
# Initiate a ggplot e <- ggplot(ToothGrowth, aes(x = dose, y = len)) # Add mean points +/- SD # Use geom = "pointrange" or geom = "crossbar" e + geom_violin(trim = FALSE) + stat_summary( fun.data = "mean_sdl", fun.args = list(mult = 1), geom = "pointrange", color = "black" ) # Combine with box plot to add median and quartiles # Change fill color by groups, remove legend e + geom_violin(aes(fill = dose), trim = FALSE) + geom_boxplot(width = 0.2)+ scale_fill_manual(values = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800", "#FC4E07"))+ theme(legend.position = "none")
mean_sdl is used for adding mean and standard deviation. It computes the mean plus or minus a constant times the standard deviation. In the R code above, the constant is specified using the argument
mult (mult = 1). By default mult = 2. The mean +/- SD can be added as a crossbar or a pointrange.
Create a Violin Plot with multiple groups
Two different grouping variables are used:
dose on x-axis and
supp as line color (legend variable).
The space between the grouped plots is adjusted using the function
e + geom_violin(aes(color = supp), trim = FALSE, position = position_dodge(0.9) ) + geom_boxplot(aes(color = supp), width = 0.15, position = position_dodge(0.9)) + scale_color_manual(values = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800"))
This article describes how to create a Violin Plot using the ggplot2 package.